Tuesday, May 24, 2016

Manheim Township Student Wins National InvestWrite Competition

Meet our National InvestWrite Winner

On May 20, EconPA staff invited Lancaster's Manheim Township High School student Zach Andrews, his teacher Julie Frey and his parents Wendy and Todd Andrews to an awards recognition luncheon to honor him for his achievement.  Zach knew that his winning essay was selected as the high school winner for the state of Pennsylvania but Zach didn't know that his essay was the NATIONAL WINNER!! 

InvestWrite National Competition is an essential tool that enhances the The Stock Market Game™ program by providing your students with a way to demonstrate what they are learning in the classroom.

Learn more about InvestWrite

The Center for Economic Education at Millersville University is an affiliate of ECONOMICSPennsylvania and the Council on Economic Education.

ECONOMICSPennsylvania and the Council on Economic Education's mission is to ensure that every student in America understands essential economic concepts, is able to use economic ways of thinking and problem solving, and has a solid grasp of the nature and structure of the national and global economy, as producers, consumers, and citizens. Through seminars, workshops, course offerings, and instructional resources, the MUCEE will aid economic educators in their preparation to teach students how to become productive members of the labor force, responsible and informed voters, prudent savers and investors, knowledgeable consumers, and lifelong decision makers. These attributes of an economically literate citizenry are imperative to the success and well-being of our state and nation.

Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Political Sabatoge - Everyboby Loses

A NYT article from 12/9 explains how Marco Rubio has quietly undermined the ACA and is  responsible for higher health care premiums, for plan cancellations, and for some insurers to close their doors.  Yet, he continues to be praised by the very same people he's giving the shaft.  Why?  In my opinion, the lack of basic economic literacy.

Insurance companies adjust rates based on the pool of people they insure.  If that pool is expected to use more health care, premiums rise.  In the first few years of the ACA, without strong incentives for the healthy and financially capable to sign up (because the opposition watered down the penalties), only those uninsured and in poor health sign up.  The purpose of the "temporary" reimbursements to insurers referenced in the article is to offset these risks and uncertainties through 2016, otherwise insurers would have had no choice but to set very high rates in anticipation of a less healthy- more expensive- pool.  If that were to happen, then adverse selection would lead to the end of any effort -the vast majority of Americans supported- to provide uninsured citizens with basic health coverage.  

Rubio and his fellow Republicans, betting that they understand basic economics better than their supporters, killed the provision to reimburse insurers for anticipated adverse selection problems.   Their actions are nothing more than political sabotage.  Killing the provision has ZERO economic merit and does nothing but shift the cost of adverse selection from "taxpayers" to health care consumers - who are the same people!   Rubio and his colleagues are willing to throw everyone under the bus, calling it "saving the taxpayer" hoping to fool the uninformed without ever offering any acceptable policy or reform to make it better.  Many conservatives reading this article, quick to blame Obama and the ACA for the cancellation of plans, higher out-of-pocket expenses, and insurers going out of business, are playing the fool.  Few of Rubio's supporters have any idea how they are being used to only support a political power grab, while still paying for it all in the end (pun intended).

Marco Rubio Quietly Undermines Affordable Care Act

Saturday, September 12, 2015

Poor Journalism

See the following story written by Matt Egan at CNN Money:


1. "It's no secret that China is the largest holder of U.S. debt." There is no secret because it is not even true.  ALL foreign holders of US government debt make up less than 50% of publicly held national debt.  China is the largest "foreign" holder but holds less than 10%.  Interestingly, as recently as 2008, Japan was the largest foreign holder of US debt and was for many years.  In addition, since 2008, Japan has owned almost as much China yet I never see an article written about Japan's US debt holdings.
It is misleading and inaccurate to refer to China as the largest holder when US individuals, pension funds, mutual funds, banks, and insurance companies hold significantly more.
2. "China is dumping US debt" - According to US Treasury data, China's holding increased from Jan 2015 through June 2015 (last date for published data).  Where is the evidence, source?  Wonderfully inaccurate, misleading, and unsubstantiated headline.
3. "But China's foreign-exchange reserves plunged by a record $94 billion in August, according to the country's central bank, leaving it with a war chest of $3.6 trillion. Analysts say it's very safe to believe a big chunk of that decline occurred due to a reduction in U.S. Treasury holdings." - Since the most recently published data show China increasing their holdings of US debt, it would certainly be proper journalism to provide some reference or source for the data. Who are the "analysts"?
4.  Even if #3 is true, a "big chunk" of $94 billion is just 2% of their "war chest" and if they are actually "dumping" US debt as stated by your unknown analyst, at most $94 billion would result in about 7.5% of their US debt holdings, but probably less than that depending on what the mathematical equivalent of "big chunk" is.

This article should never have been published.  The editors at CNN Money need to do some better quality control.

Friday, March 13, 2015

Teaching the Elasticity Concept - Traffic Fines Based on Income

Adjusting the size of penalties and fines to income sends the same price signal to everyone.  This system is not only fair, it makes economic sense given that the purpose of a system of fines and penalties is to create socially accepted deterrents for reducing socially unacceptable behavior.  Using a sliding scale for the fine takes into account the inelasticity of demand for those who are wealthy. 


Most of Scandinavia determines fines based on income. Could such a system work in the U.S.?

Read More:

Monday, March 2, 2015

The Importance of "Scoring" Government Policy

Recently, House Republicans have quietly made some changes to how future tax and spending laws are analyzed for their estimated costs and benefits on government budgets and the economy.  This concept is referred to as "scoring". Up until these recent changes, we had been using "static scoring".  Republicans would prefer "dynamic scoring".

Under static scoring, the estimated effects of proposed spending and tax policies are based on the notion of a fixed government pie.  Think of this as more of a microeconomic analysis of how the policy might alter relative prices, change behavior, and impact sensitive populations.  Static scoring does not emphasize an estimate of the future economic pie enhancing qualities of the change in behavior, to do so would be to use the analysis to “dynamically” score the proposed policy.  Dynamic scoring is an attempt to estimate the future economic impacts of proposed spending and tax policies and include those estimates into a measure of how the future economic pie might change.  Therefore, dynamic scoring relies on long term assumptions about economic growth, interest rates, inflation, and the global economy.  Policy changes that might suggest future increases in the economic pie might be scored higher despite near term budget deficits or adverse impacts on sensitive populations.   

Static scoring evaluates the proposed spending or tax policy with emphasis on the government’s current budget and looks to see if the policy is paid for with offsetting taxes or spending.  Static scoring also evaluates policy based on how the economic pie is divided.  The logic behind using static scoring is that if the uncertain dynamic macroeconomic benefits of the proposed policy do not materialize, then there is less harm done because the dynamic macro effects were not taken into account – there was no expectation.  If they do materialize, then it is a bonus.  However, the downside of static scoring is that policy makers may be too fiscally conservative (ironic?) and the process could result in a bias away from major policy and tax code overhauls.

To adopt dynamic scoring means that spending and tax policy proposals and their acceptance will be influenced by uncertain macro effects.  Dynamic scoring could also include assumptions about future changes in other policies.  As one might guess, this opens up opportunities to manipulate estimates based on preferred economic assumptions which have the potential to be politically driven. If policy proposals are favored based on dynamic scoring and the estimated economic benefits do not materialize, we may be left with deficit increasing and economic pie reducing policies.  Dynamic scoring puts more weight and consequences on correctly predicting the future in a very uncertain world.